AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2004 by World Health Organization

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Additional info for AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2004

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In Indonesia, Nepal, Viet Nam and parts of China, rapid, recent rises in HIV infection among drug injectors appear to have spurred subsequent rises in HIV infection among non-injectors who have sexual risk behaviours, “kick-starting” wider epidemics, as Figure 15 illustrates. Given the very large population numbers in these countries, continued HIV spread among those with risk behaviours and their sex partners condoms consistently (MAP, 2004). Among sex workers in brothel areas (a group that ought to be easier to reach with interventions), rates of condom use with all clients in the previous week stood at a meagre 4% (MAP, 2004).

Even then, “sex work” or “commercial sex” takes on various forms. It can be “formal or direct” and based in establishments such as brothels, saunas and massage parlours, or it can be “informal or indirect” and based in bars, restaurants, truck stops and taxi ranks and on the streets. The transactions can be overtly commercial—the exchange of sex for a set fee—or they can be much more opaque—sex rewarded with gifts or favours, for example. In addition, numerous paths lead women and girls (as well as men and boys) into selling or exchanging sex.

Gathered from Demographic and Health Surveys over a five-year period, the data show young men in Uganda and Zambia and young women in Malawi, Uganda and Zambia were most likely to use condoms (see Figure 11). But in Tanzania there was no change in the proportion using a condom at last sex. And, while the proportion of women engaging in sex with a non-marital, non-cohabitating partner declined in Zambia, it declined only for men in Uganda and increased for both men and women in Tanzania (see Figure 12).

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