By Arild Angelsen, David Kaimowitz
This publication has been built from a workshop on Technological switch in agriculture and tropical deforestation geared up via the guts for overseas Forestry learn and held in Costa Rica in March, 1999. It explores how intensification of agriculture impacts tropical deforestation utilizing case stories from diverse realms, utilizing diverse agricultural items and applied sciences and in differing demographic events and marketplace stipulations. tips is usually given on destiny agricultural examine and extension efforts.
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Additional info for Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation
The Swiss began to substitute coal for fuel wood and the expansion of the railway system made it easier to import both fuel wood and coal from abroad. The first Swiss railway opened in 1844. Six years later there were still only 24 km of track. But by 1860 that figure had risen to over 1000 km and by the end of the century it was over 3000 km (Statistischen Bureau, 1900). Partly as a result, fuel imports doubled between 1860 and 1870, and had trebled 2 years later (Société Suisse des Forestiers, 1874).
Conversely, the introduction and increasing use of sown grasses and the rise of commercial dairy farming influenced forest cover more favourably. As in the neighbouring areas of France, these changes helped concentrate farming in the more productive lowlands and valleys and gradually lessened pressure on the higher areas. This, in turn, facilitated reforestation. It is important to emphasize, however, that changes in transport and in attitudes about forests and their management accompanied these changes in agriculture.
Shortly after the Swiss Confederation was established, a Department of Forestry was created and, in 1855, the Federal Polytechnic School began providing training in forest management. The following year, the Swiss Forestry Society obtained funding for forest research, and work began on the causes of flooding. In short, several institutional developments had occurred before the 1860s, involving both the state and civil society, which helped satisfy the preconditions for moving towards more sustainable forest resource management.