By Maurice H. Francombe, John L. Vossen
Major development has happened over the last few years in machine applied sciences and those are surveyed during this new quantity. incorporated are Si/(Si-Ge) heterojunctions for high-speed built-in circuits, Schottky-barrier arrays in Si and Si-Ge alloys for infrared imaging, III-V quantum-well detector buildings operated within the heterodyne mode for high-data-rate communications, and III-V heterostructures and quantum-wells for infrared emissions.
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Extra resources for Advances in Research and Development, Volume 23: Modeling of Film Deposition for Microelectronic Applications (Thin Films)
0025 at 850 K (138). The decrease in sticking coefficient with temperature suggests adsorption mediated by a precursor state SiH2CI2(g) r SiH2CI 2 (ad) (26) followed by dissociative chemisorption with the overall reaction (138) SiH~Cl~(ad) + 4* ~ SiCI* + CI* + 2H*. ~ (27) ~Coon et al. ,), where 0~,/ is the fraction of sites occupied by chlorine and 0 is the saturation coverage of chlorine. This suggests that a single vacant site is required for chernisorption. The subsequent decomposition steps are presumably rapid and result in the overall reaction Eq.
Figure 12 shows a schematic diagram of the UHV/CVD reactor at Carnegie Mellon that was designed and built in 1989 (87). The wafers are placed on a wafer boat that is loaded into a quartz reaction tube heated by a conventional resistance furnace. Gases are introduced at one end through mass flow controllers and pumped away at the other end by a turbopump. To maintain purity of the reactor, UHV sealing and pumping techniques are used and wafers are inserted using a load lock. UHV conditions can be attained in the growth chamber (water vapor and oxygen partial pressures less than 10 ~0torr).
A. LOW-TEMPERATURE GROWTH Growth at low temperatures (below about 800~ and ideally near 600~ is highly desirable because the apparent critical thickness is greater and the onset of nonplanar growth is delayed. Traditionally CVD epitaxial growth of silicon is performed at much higher temperatures ( ~ l l00~ and at or slightly below atmospheric pressure. A schematic illustration of a growth system operating under such conditions is shown in Fig. 11. Due to the high temperature and the prevalence of intermolecular collisions, gas phase reactions result in the formation of numerous species not present in the incoming gas stream.