By A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov
This monograph is dedicated to the activation and numerous ameliorations of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes), i.e. reactions followed via the C--H and C--C bond cleavage. Alkanes are the most parts of oil and usual fuel, and therefore are the important feedstocks for the chemical undefined. nevertheless, those ingredients are identified to be the least reactive natural compounds. designated cognizance is paid to the lately came upon alkane activations in the presence of steel complexes, that are defined in additional aspect. as well as the reactions of saturated hydrocarbons that are the major subject of this publication, the activation of C--H bonds in arenes or even olefins and acetylenes are thought of. The monograph may be invaluable not just if you happen to have an interest in the activation of alkanes and different hydrocarbons via steel complexes, but additionally for experts in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, petrochemistry, and organometallic chemistry. a few elements of the monograph could be of curiosity for experts in inorganic and natural chemistry, theoretical chemistry, biochemistry or even biology, and additionally in case you paintings within the petrochemical undefined, business natural synthesis and biotechnology.
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Evitt, E. ; Löffer, D. ; Wentrecek, P. ; Masuda, T. Science, 1993, 259, 340. ; Sen, A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 4574. 16. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1979, 101, 1032. ; Hirobe, M. Heterocycles 1995, 40, 867. CHAPTER II HYDROCARBON TRANSFORMATIONS THAT DO NOT INVOLVE METALS OR THEIR COMPOUNDS n this chapter we will briefly survey the main types of hydrocarbon transformations that occur without the participation of solid metals or oxides and metal complexes. The alkane transformations described here should be taken into consideration for comparison when discussing the metal complex activation.
Soc. 1983, 105, 6491. 14. Shul’pin, G. ; Nizova, G. ; Nikitaev, A. T. J. Organomet. Chem. 1984, 276, 115. 15. (a) Renneke, R. ; Hill, C. L. Angew. Chem. 1988, 100, 1583. (b) Periana, R. ; Taube, D. ; Evitt, E. ; Löffer, D. ; Wentrecek, P. ; Masuda, T. Science, 1993, 259, 340. ; Sen, A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 4574. 16. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1979, 101, 1032. ; Hirobe, M. Heterocycles 1995, 40, 867. CHAPTER II HYDROCARBON TRANSFORMATIONS THAT DO NOT INVOLVE METALS OR THEIR COMPOUNDS n this chapter we will briefly survey the main types of hydrocarbon transformations that occur without the participation of solid metals or oxides and metal complexes.
II. A. PYROLYSIS Heating alkanes [la-c] at temperature 900-2000 °C gives rise to the formation of radicals: 21 22 CHAPTER II (Refs. p. 69) and carbenes: In accordance with these equations, ethane, ethylene, acetylene and elemental carbon are produced by the cracking of methane. Activation energy of this process is 76 kcal The formation of acetylene starting from methane or ethane are endothermic processes: The equilibrium in these reactions is shifted to the right at temperatures for ethane and for methane.