By Rayne Allinson
Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) despatched extra letters into extra far-off kingdoms than any English monarch had sooner than, and her exchanges with an ever-growing variety of rulers demonstrate how transferring conceptions of sovereignty have been made take place on paper. This e-book examines Elizabeth's correspondence with numerous major rulers, reading how her letters have been built, drafted and provided, the rhetorical options used, and the position those letters performed in facilitating diplomatic family members. Elizabeth's letters did greater than authorize diplomatic motion out of the country: in general they mirrored, and infrequently even motivated, the course of international policy.
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Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) despatched extra letters into extra far away kingdoms than any English monarch had earlier than, and her exchanges with an ever-growing variety of rulers demonstrate how moving conceptions of sovereignty have been made take place on paper. This ebook examines Elizabeth's correspondence with a number of major rulers, interpreting how her letters have been built, drafted and provided, the rhetorical innovations used, and the function those letters performed in facilitating diplomatic kin. Elizabeth's letters did greater than authorize diplomatic motion in a foreign country: regularly they mirrored, and infrequently even motivated, the course of overseas policy.
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Extra info for A Monarchy of Letters: Royal Correspondence and English Diplomacy in the Reign of Elizabeth I (Queenship and Power)
58 Italian was another popular language for diplomatic exchange. 62 English was the least common language used in Elizabeth’s foreign correspondence, and was mainly used for correspondence with the Scottish rulers Mary, Queen of Scots, and James VI—although, curiously, several English letters were also sent to Tsar Ivan the Terrible, perhaps to reciprocate the letters he had sent in his own vernacular. English letters appear to have been subject to different bureaucratic protocols than those in foreign languages: instead of being produced in the secretariat (along with Latin and French), English autographs were produced in the signet office.
In her total disregard for legibility, Elizabeth’s was the most “noble” writer of all. Elizabeth’s prose style was almost as distinctive as her handwriting and provides some clues to how she perceived the political utility of language. ”22 To the ear of most modern historians, however, Elizabeth’s turn of phrase is much less pleasurable. indd 21 3/15/2012 4:24:21 PM 22 A Monarchy of Letters Elizabeth had been submerged in Ciceronian rhetoric, which as Janet M. ”24 Such training was particularly useful whenever an “answer answerless” was required—but on the other hand, such evasive language laid Elizabeth open to misinterpretation, or even incomprehension.
81 Since Elizabeth’s relations with both Ivan and Murād were only newly established, she and her secretaries were clearly still experimenting with different epistolary forms to see which ones proved most effective in furthering their diplomatic objectives. indd 31 3/15/2012 4:24:24 PM 32 A Monarchy of Letters “might breed a suspicion” in the minds of the Ottomans, who (like the Russians) equated size with magnificence and respect. For most of Elizabeth’s European correspondents, however, a smaller seal was interpreted as a sign of intimacy and strong friendship.