By George A. Petrides
Детально охарактеризованы все дикорастущие деревья, кустарники и древесные лианы, обитающие к югу от Ньюфаундленда, к северу от Северной Каролины и Тенесси, к востоку от Дакоты и Канзаса. Охарактеризованы 646 вида, включая форму и расположение листьев, высоту, цвет, строение кроны, сезон цветения и плоды. Четкие рисунки показывают листья, цветы, силуэты деревьев и прочие характеристики.
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Additional info for A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs: Northeastern and North-Central United States and Southeastern and South-Central Canada
27. Component layout by biological growth I The Mechanics of Trees and the SelfOptimization of Tree Shape The Controlling Mechanisms and Their Effect on the Tree There are more than just three growth regulators which have been described in detail [35, 37, 39] . The fact that only three of them are discussed here is because they are particularly important. We shall also soon see that the effects of apical dominance and phototropism may even involve mechanical disadvantages for the tree, but are nevertheless necessary for its survival.
In Fig. 36, the relevant lengths are shown as 'h', it being assumed here that the distribution of the wind pressure is proportional to the projected crown area. The bending stresses on the trunk surface can be calculated from these distributions with Eq. (3), assuming a circular trunk cross-section. Now, assuming that the tree trunk is a component optimized over millions of years of evolution and satisfies the axiom of uniform stress, we only need to put CJ max = CJ, = constant in Eq. e. between diameter and measured distance h, as explained in Fig.
28). This process is called apical dominance. Growing away from the trunk, the branches also receive more light than would a bundle of branches lying close to the trunk and pointing upwards. g. with beech, where the wind loading of a crown located so high up in the top of the tree would act on the longest lever ann, namely the full length of the trunk. However, this is of little importance in such dense stands because of the mutual shelter. Now, if the leading shoot falls sick, or breaks right off as a result of wind or snow load, it no longer makes sense for the nearest side branches to respect their weak leader.