A Field Guide to Biological Soil Crusts of Western U.S. by Lichen

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Extra resources for A Field Guide to Biological Soil Crusts of Western U.S. Drylands

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Buellia punctata is more frequent in old growth habitats and is an indicator of organic matter accumulation and lack of recent fire. Elevation 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 Meters 50 Caloplaca tominii Common name: Tomin’s orange lichen Synonym: None Description: Thallus crustose, adnate, bright orange to yellow-orange. Thallus surface breaks into soredia. Epruinose. 5(5) mm diameter. Margins usually lecanorine. Spores 2-celled, colorless, with a conspicuously thickened cell wall, pushing the cell cavities (locules) to the ends or “poles”, therefore called polarilocular, 16-17 × 8-9 µm.

Muscorum by its very thick (~ 2 mm), undulating, crustose thallus, and preference for gypsiferous soils. Diploschistes muscorum, which is not pruinose, is darker gray and generally smaller and flatter with a thinner thallus Elevation and occurs almost exclusively on 4,000 non-calcareous soils. 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 Meters 58 Endocarpon pusillum Common name: Scaly stippled lichen Synonym: Endocarpon schaereri Description: Thallus squamulose, tan to light or dark brown. Epruinose.

Upper cortex shiny when dry. Lobes foliose or subfoliose, up to 5 mm long. Margins distinctively finger-like, lobate. Marginal lobes similar in length and radiating out like fingers on a hand. Lower surface pale with sparse, dark rhizines. Apothecia rare, reddish brown to black, laminal or marginal, up to 2 mm diameter. 5 µm. Photobiont blue-green (Nostoc). Habitat: Moist sites, often on mosses and soils on north-facing slopes. Chemistry: All spot tests negative. Comments: This is a nitrogen-fixing lichen.

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